Hardware Level Primitive Generics
The C++ language has a very useful feature that allows heavy reuse of code. The feature is called templates. I have never used them, but one can easily see what makes templates so popular. Suppose you wanted to sort on arbitrary types. In C, you would do this by passing a pointer to a function which compares the operands. This, sadly, requires a lot of overhead for something so simple. If you are comparing strings, the overhead might be relatively small. If you're comparing integers or characters, the overhead might be several times the amount of work of the actual operation.
The C++ templates take care of this problem by generating all the code you need. That is, (my understanding is) it compiles code for every case. This will generate efficient code for all cases, but there are drawbacks. There is code bloat. You end up with multiple copies of code for every function. With modern hardware, I don't believe there is any way around that. The build process tends to require additional steps beyond the standard compile and link phases. I also wonder how templates are handled in shared object files. If you write a library that uses templates and is compiled before the code that will access it, how can it have the code for types yet unknown?
An idea occurred to me for a limited subset of this problem. Suppose our types are limited to a handful of primitives: char, int, float, double. Even having a generic type for only these types would be useful for many algorithms. You may want to try the algorithm on different types. This could be implemented in hardware. The typing issues would be mostly transparent to the programmer and the compiler.
Let's say I make a special register file of 64 bit registers that can store any of the types above. Somehow the machine needs to know the types of the data in each register. One way to handle this is to add two extra bits to each register to identify its type. When any two types are operated on (say by multiply or add), the hardware will cast the type with less precision to the type with more precision. This means the compiler only has to worry about moving types in and out of generic registers. Any operations on generic registers are handled by the hardware. Anywhere an explicit cast occurs in code will also have to be handled by the compiler. This would allow you to have a completely generic primitive type without any code duplication or overhead. In addition, it's far less work for the compiler.
As usual, I have left a few things out of the discussion. To make this more practical, you would want to be able to store generic types back to memory. By adding two extra bits to each type, you create the problem of having 66 bit types, which really doesn't fit into memory. There are probably many ways to handle this. You might have a separate memory space which indicates the types. You might simply have the compiler work with the machine to determine types. Of course that would increase the burden on the compiler and probably slow things down. However, once the generic types are in registers, the computation should be as fast or even faster than normally generated code.